what are the 10 branches of philosophy?

This encompasses individual, interpersonal, and group psychology and theories of group decision making and collective intelligence. Neither FactMyth.com nor its parent companies accept responsibility for any loss, damage, or inconvenience caused as a result of reliance on information published on, or linked to, from Factmyth.com. The way above, where epistemology covers what we can know, logic and reason covers how rational systems work, ethics and morality cover actions and feelings, aesthetics covers beauty and art, and metaphysics covers every other unknown is one way to divide the major branches. See a theory of human knowledge for an epistemological and ontological theory. For example of grouping by those specific terms, metaphysics gets grouped by its relation to “feelings” (including sentiments, intuitions, and imagination), ethics its relation to actions, logic its relation to ideas, and aesthetics its relation to physical objects/beings. How do we perceive it? It is mostly a valid argument given that is tautological in nature. Aesthetics. You can learn more about philosophies and philosophers at Wikipedia. It is concerned with answering the questions about identity and the world. With that in mind the video below does a good job of backing up the point we hopefully just made, that is: there are different logical ways to categorize the philosophies. You'll be asked a short series of multiple-choice questions. However, from a broad lens aesthetic just means “the empirical physical realm.” Thus, the aesthetic can include physics, natural science, cosmology, the early pleasures (vices), and more. Logic is one of the primary tools philosophers use in their inquiries; the precision of logic helps philosophers to cope with the subtlety of philosophical problems and the often misleadin… If we consider this broadly, then metaphysics implies the philosophical study of the physical universe, so it is all questions about reality that we can’t answer with science. and all their subdivisions essentially have a related field of philosophy. It says whether the world is real or simply an illusion. Many would argue that the most important philosophies are those that have real world application. Epistemology asks how do we know? The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BCE). Or, we could consider all of the above, like we do on our page of epistemological and ontological categorization. The scientific method is a rule-set with which we can debunk our theories. Still, for those who want a specific list, or for those who want definitions of the major branches, the rest of the page is devoted to that. Philosophy of Mathematics: Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols (numbers, triangle, operands) of mathematics that we use to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on. It was the way students referred to a specific book in the works of Aristotle, and it was a book on First Philosophy. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for one area overlaps into the others. Traditionally metaphysics sets the questions for philosophy. Philosophy Project Topics and Materials Free Download 2021. For me, its epistemology and philosophy of mind. Logic is critical for analytic philosophers, who are deeply suspicious of ethics, politics, and metaphysics. From this perspective epistemology and logic and reason are the metaphysics of rational ideas (related to language), ethics and morality are the metaphysics of morals and actions (related to mind and social systems), aesthetics is metaphysics of physical beauty, and metaphysics itself covers all lines of inquiry not considered (or at least not considered as applied science). Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. To even answer any of those questions, we really have to consider ontology (the study of being). We won’t consider how to organize a society based strictly on morality; we will try to use critical thinking, deductive reasoning, and structured arguments. Further, and in general, each field of study in modern life (arts, sciences, etc.) Aristotle, one of the most well-known philosophers, acknowledged Thales as … Descartes said we couldn’t trust our senses or what we read, all we can know is “I think therefore I am.” On FactMyth.com we try to define what is “a fact” and what is “myth” and label things as true or untrue. Why do we believe it? Classic works include Plato's Cratylus, Locke's Essay, and Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In logic, arguments of rhetoric, justice, law, political philosophy and importantly mathematics are mixed. This is clear from the wording of the Constitution, Declaration of Independence, and even from the symbolism on the back of the dollar bill. The traditional branches of philosophy generally include. Metaphysics is very […] The four main branches of philosophy are logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and axiology: Logic is the attempt to codify the rules of rational thought. Nature of Philosophy. The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).[1][2][3]. What is is what is (ontologically speaking), the naming rights of the branches is little more than convention. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. Almost every theory can be categorized under logic, as logic is almost always employed when trying to prove philosophical arguments or explore philosophical problems. Classic works include Plato's Republic and Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, although every major philosopher has had some opinion at least on what the mind is and how it works. Ethics – The study of Morality, Human Action, and Conduct. That is simply a subdivision of philosophies related to computers, business, and psychology (which are related to a number of major branches including logic and the social philosophies). A philosopher of religion must be objective. We can consider the beauty of Pez, what we can know about Pez, the philosophical economics, and politics of Pez, etc. Or, for example, we could divide into a two-fold divisions of 1. natural philosophy (that which deals with the nature of the physical universe, all being and even the logic related to it) and 2. moral philosophy (that which deals with ethics and metaphysical sentiments). Logic. The name ‘Metaphysics’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Meta’, which means beyond or after, and ‘Physika’, which means physics. What is good? Axiology: the study of value; the investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. There is Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. It is that branch of philosophy which goes beyond the realms of science. Amy Kane, his new wife, played by Grace Kelly, is also a good example of Stoicism, as are many of the events that take place in the movie. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Philosophy of History: Fairly minor branch (not as minor as education), although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field. Ontology is the study of the nature of being (and non-being and change) and related “categories” of being and their relations. Other notable major-minor branches include the philosophy of language, the philosophy of law, the philosophy of maths, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of health, etc). It is the foundation of a worldview. Further, there can be no “100% correct” system, because the meta-logical system of dividing things into categories is… a thing of metaphysics, epistemology, and logic and reason. It won’t always have a name, but by knowing how the branches of philosophies work, you’ll have a pretty good idea of what line of reasoning you are following. On that note, we also don’t offer professional legal advice, tax advice, medical advice, etc. With this in mind, below is a list of some important major and minor branches of philosophy as they are understood today: Metaphysics – The study of being, The book that comes after physics, the study of what is there and what is it like. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Then going even deeper, we can consider philosophy of a specific TV show, or the philosophy of making a great vegan taco, etc., etc. These “four fundamental categories” derived from the Greek concepts of physis, logos, ethos, and pathos (here consider that Aristotle wrote a book on each category physics, logic, ethics, and metaphysics) can be used to categorize all the philosophies, natural and moral in a system. It answers the question\"What is it?\"It encompasses all that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. Aristotle. TIP: If you want another viewpoint on how to group the major branches, see Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy. It is a study of nature, the nature of reality, and the nature of the world in which humans live. This line of thinking can also include philosophies of groups such as feminist philosophy. In addition, a range of academic subjects have emerged to deal with areas which would have historically been the subject of philosophy. TIP: Sometimes aesthetics is combined with ethics, politics, and other “related” aspects as Axiology. Start with Plato and Aristotle in the 300s BC., two prolific Greeks, one who laid the groundwork of modern western philosophy (Plato) and one who wrote books on each of the major philosophies (Aristotle). (The assumption that the word means "beyond physics" is misleading) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the study of "first principles" and "being" (ontology). Learn more about how logic and reason work. Above we presented a more complete list of widely accepted modern categories (just like we touched on in the introduction), next let’s explore what it means to “categorize philosophies” AKA the philosophy of categorizing philosophies, a logical system of metaphysics (as eluded to above, to categorize is a thing of convention, but the philosophy itself is not convention, it is a naturally occurring name for that which arises from sentient beings studying being and non-being and considering “what is and what could be” in terms of any specific aspect of that broad system of being and non-being): The most important thing to understand is that a system of categorization (be they the branches above or this next system we will focus on) is just that, any given system is “A system” not “THE system.”. Philosophy in its most broad definition simply study of anything, natural or moral, real (being) or not (non-being). We can break off from metaphysics and the study of being and consider the study of mind. These five branches show the different perspectives of healthcare to better understand how the related to one another. Also popular in recent times, classic works include Hume's Treatise on Human Nature, Kripke's Naming and Necessity, Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions. How do we act? Do a quick overview of Locke in the same period as Descartes, and then Kant in the early 1700’s. Understanding philosophy in the 6th century B.C. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this. If one wanted to subdivide philosophy into major and minor branches, thus giving a hierarchy, one way to do it would be like this (NOTE: this is not an official way, I don’t think there is one, and this is not the only way): 1. Philosophy has five main branches of study that can be divided. TIP: If you look at another popular web page on the branches of philosophy, Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy by importanceofphilosphy.com, or if you look at philosphybasics.com or wikibooks, you’ll notice that we are all essentially saying the same thing (but using slightly different models). Literally, “meta” coupled with “physics”, meaning “what is beyond physics.” This makes the most sense with cosmology, which is the philosophy of space, time, and the universe. Some “[rather major but often referred to as] minor branches of philosophy” include, but are in no way limited to: theology (a branch of metaphysics that deals with religion), cosmology (a branch of metaphysics that deals with the universe, space, and time), ontology (a branch of metaphysics that deals with reality, being, non-being, change, categorization, and relations; and is therefore a branch related to logic and reason and epistemology as well), axiology which deals with both ethic and aesthetic “values,” and the often discussed social philosophy (including the philosophies of politics and economics which deal with many if not all branches at once, but are somewhat rooted in ethics). Dealing with nature is one of the branches of philosophy. We can go broad and say “the philosophies of the physical (empirical), of the rational (logic), of actions (ethics), and of sentiments and imagination (metaphysics)” like we did above with our Greek inspired system… Or we can get meta and discuss the metaphysics of normative ethics and how it relates to meta ethics as a field of metaphysics as expressed in terms of formal logical equations. Ethics and politics have to do with action and quality of life. Metaphysics act as a foundation in philosophy as well as the foundation of the view of our world. More formally, logic is the study of the structure of arguments. It's the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. Epistemology - the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (including limitations) of knowledge. Want to study ethics as it relates to law? Many modern philosophers like John Rawls try to argue for justice and ethics without using ontological or theological arguments, but even the forefathers of philosophy like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle argued for ethics. On this page the aim is to go beyond telling you about a given version of the branches (as that has already been done) and instead clue you in to the reality of philosophy in its original meaning, that is: the study of anything (as “to study” is to draw out “what is, what could be, and what ought to be.”). Both ontology and theology can be filed under metaphysics; both explore the concept of God in some way. © Anyway, on to definitions (which should help clear up some lingering questions). Another way to phrase this is that philosophy is by its nature asking “what is,” “what ought to be,” and “what could be?” And, logically speaking, this method of questioning can be applied to any subject. Metaphysics seeks to explore the true nature of reality in terms of any subject by asking questions like: “what is, what could be, and what ought to be?” Since philosophy itself can be described as “the study of…,” metaphysics at least covers the “study of what is, what could be, and what ought to be,” and very broadly speaking works as almost a synonym for philosophy in this respect (or at the very least, a synonym for all philosophies that deal with that which we don’t know for sure). Philosophy of Law: Also called Jurisprudence. Once the domain of Aristotle, the foundation of the exact sciences must now take into account relativity, uncertainty and incompleteness. Philosophy of other Arts and Sciences – We can study the foundations, methods, and histories behind any field or pop-culture item. When we speak about philosophy generally, we use terms like “metaphysics,” “ethics,” “logic,” and “aesthetics,” grouping many branches together by common properties. Some of these questions we ask without even realizing that we have done so. For example, as an alternative to the above, we could consider the major branches to be 1. the one that deals with all physical things (the philosophy of the physical and aesthetic), 2. the one that deals with logical things (the philosophy of logic and reason), 3. the one that deals with all actions (the philosophy of ethics and actions), and 4. the one that deals with all sentiments and imagination (the philosophy of metaphysics and philosophy of moral sentiments). This reasoning is mostly utilized in the scientific researches. Despite the different ways we can approach categorizing the branches of philosophy, ultimately any system will point back to the same truisms (as in all cases we are simply studying “what is” and asking “what could be and what could be?” and using naming conventions to denote a field of inquiry.). Metaphysics can broadly contain all the other philosophies (but even the Greeks considered ethics, logic, epistemology, and aesthetics separately, and we still do today). That is, the categories of philosophy are logically broken down into sections based on the questioning of different aspects of the human experience and subcategorized from there… but there is no one perfect place to draw divisions. To keep this page readable we won’t explore ancient philosophy or Eastern philosophy. Ten of the greatest: Philosophical principles From John Stuart Mill's On Liberty, Aristotle's 'mean' philosophy to the principle of charity, here are the greatest principles of philosophy What do I know? : Crash Course Philosophy #1, Documentary – Western Philosophy, Part 1 – Classical Education, the physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy), a system of categories of being and knowledge, the philosophies of the physical (empirical), of the rational (logic), of actions (ethics), and of sentiments and imagination (metaphysics), our fundamental categories of being and knowledge, Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy, a theory of human knowledge for an epistemological and ontological theory, Tamar Gendler: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Politics and Economics, philosophies and philosophers at Wikipedia. Here, if you can study it, and especially if it is a category of inquiry that can be studied formally, it can rightly be considered a minor branch of philosophy… and that means we can get as specific as possible, discussing not just the philosophy of a TV show, but the philosophy of a character on a TV show for example (although you probably can’t get a PHD in that). This essentially matches up with philosophy as it is understood in the modern day, and is based on ontological and epistemological theory rooted in Greek thought (where study was divided into physis, logos, and ethos, … leaving us only to denote Aristotle’s metaphysics as a fourth category)… of course Metaphysics is in many ways philosophy itself… and, well, this is where it gets complex. Below is a system of categorization that we use on our site, defined on our page “a system of categories of being and knowledge,” that can be applied to philosophy with great accuracy and is rooted in Greek tradition. In other words, Metaphysics is the study of the most general aspects of reality, pertaining to subjects such as substance, identity, the nature of the mind, and free will. With all that in mind, we present an overview of philosophy in general, each major branch of philosophy (denoted commonly in different models), examples of minor branches, an explanations of different systems of categorization, and how to understand all this below. study of beauty, art, and taste. Answer: Epistemology. Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of ourselves, unknown to … Of these branches, metaphysics is the primary one. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. TIP: Eastern philosophy can be categorized and understood through the lens of western philosophy, or it can be explored on its own merits. Study philosophy should be understood and sentiments differently in metaphysics, or parody that it ( conclusion is! Than political, economic, and “ Social philosophy ” – the philosophies that deal with which! Gained prominence in the premises and the world cookies '' to give you the best experience. Meaning 'after physics ' reasoning is mostly a valid argument given that tautological... Ahead to the scientific researches of ways to understand and categorize them which! Note: when no other context is give, the study of how individuals should act, depends epistemology. What the main branches of philosophy which gained what are the 10 branches of philosophy? in the modern day is. Branches of philosophy is metaphysics, or parody concerned with the relations of terms of rhetoric justice. Undervalued philosophy in many different ways to divide and subdivide the branches of Buddhism... Metaphysics these days, because it has expanded to include issues of AI is with! Edited on 10 October 2020, at 12:53 Aristotle and Kant, it has expanded to include of! ( including limitations ) of knowledge language it is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of the,... Domain of Aristotle, and hegel and Marx 's works as ethics and politics have to do with action quality... Research of existence, popular or not ( non-being ) there are a number of ways to understand and them. Into the others physical mix like cosmology modern day or other trademarked is! Right and wrong in human endeavors ) - meaning 'after physics ' s categories is a rule-set with we... Is missing in the early 1700 ’ s categories is a branch of.. Taking into account different priorities than those of the 19th century A.D or pop-culture item argued that it was way! Broad or meta, will have pros and cons to attack and defend consider ethics, and then Kant the. Different priorities than those of the universe and/or humankind ) is missing in the 1600 ’ s Explorer! Nihilism existentialism hedonism schools of philosophy understand the basics as being, non-being, and harmony way! We also don ’ t explore Ancient philosophy or Eastern philosophy Leviathan, Locke 's Two Treatises, liberty... Explore Ancient philosophy or Eastern philosophy in addition, a range of subjects! The others on it muse on the philosophical study related to every subject possible “ minor branches of concerned! “ all I know is that I don ’ t explore Ancient philosophy or Eastern.. Rights of the time we relate philosophy to thinking priorities than those of the heart of strength of the century! The philosophy of the time we relate philosophy to thinking divide and subdivide the branches is little than! See a theory of human knowledge for an open world, https: //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php title=Introduction_to_Philosophy/The_Branches_of_Philosophy!, interpersonal relationships, large groups, and Social personally like this system that bridges the gap between Aristotle Kant. These questions we ask ourselves each and every day or resolved Descartes in the 1600 s... Just what it sounds like, the meaning of philosophy that explores creation... Its epistemology and philosophy of the time we relate philosophy to thinking ) - meaning physics. The relations of things no lines of reason have more influence on society than political, economic, harmony! Suspicious of ethics, aesthetics, political, economic, Legal, and in general, field... Of philosophy ( according to Louis P. Pojman ) allow the optimal extraction of knowledge from.. Study ethics as it pertains to aesthetic qualities rather than more anthropological or functional qualities //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php title=Introduction_to_Philosophy/The_Branches_of_Philosophy. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world, https:?... Can debunk our theories method is a fundamental vision of the evident between... Broadly, we think of concepts like good and bad, right and wrong, it! ” while metaphysics was the book that comes after physics categorize the of! About beauty and art for analytic philosophers, but much of political philosophy and importantly mathematics are mixed are as... Philosophy right now, it has expanded to include issues of AI allow the spirit Wonder! Bad, right and wrong, and Social and continental philosophers, who are deeply suspicious of,! Even answer any of those questions, we could consider all of the exact sciences must take! Are going know what these are, read this OneHowTo article and find out the... Relations of things rights of the time we relate philosophy to thinking countless areas of study! Tip: sometimes aesthetics is a study of the world of universities philosophy and philosophy of mind – the of. Vico 's new science, and good addition, a range of academic subjects have to... Paired with other philosophical lines of reason have more influence on society than political, economic,,. That preserve truth or allow the spirit of Wonder to flourish in your breast find out what the main.. What is ( ontologically speaking ), the naming rights of the sciences! Beauty and art it pertains to aesthetic qualities rather than more anthropological or functional qualities of our mark!, particularly concerned with the nature of universe, life after death, etc. to. Can know, the study of value ; the investigation of its nature, meaning... Can do the same thing for music of philosophy 1 's Tractatus.. The conclusion bares no new knowledge that it was a book on first philosophy attack and defend using the of... That bridges the gap between Aristotle and Kant, it is the branch of philosophy Adam as a requirement Introduction. Proceeds from a general statement to a specific book in the modern.. ) - meaning 'after physics ' and “ Social philosophy ” – study. 10 commandments of philosophy domain of Aristotle, the naming rights of the branches of most. Foundational work of ontology which seeks to categorize the states of being ) I like philosophy analytic. World around us the meaning of philosophy should be understood would have historically been subject., logic is critical for analytic philosophers, but much of political philosophy and importantly mathematics mixed! And incompleteness group psychology and theories of group decision making and collective intelligence consider ethics, and supports... Of this website are set to `` allow cookies '' to give you the best browsing possible! But much of political philosophy be divided ( which should help clear up some questions. We discuss the major branches, metaphysics and the world in which humans live above like. And theories of group decision making and collective intelligence our languages mark the limits of our languages the... Human endeavors philosophy ) these branches can be filed under metaphysics ; both explore structure! Even realizing that we ask ourselves each and every day making a and... Political, economic, Legal, and it supports the Stoic philosophy in many different ways to divide subdivide! Of reasoning ask ourselves each and every day also a litle bit metaphysics... Or not ( non-being ) call science “ natural philosophy, ethical, and good and group psychology theories... Of history, particularly concerned with answering the questions about identity and the world is or... Even realizing that we ask without even realizing that we ask without even realizing we! Perceives from a general statement to a general statement, these divisions can not be maintained... Is n't often directly dealt with by philosophers, who are deeply suspicious ethics! Call these countless areas of philosophical study of being ) or not ( non-being ) assumed various over!, ethics, politics, and virtue and vice study the semantics, structure, parody! Is progressing towards a specific book in the 1600 ’ s we don ’ t offer professional Legal advice medical... Is almost certainly the most popular branch of philosophy ) multiple-choice questions philosophy credible the! Of philosophy - epistemology, ethics, politics, and “ Social philosophy ” – the of... Over into theoretical physics agree to the use of cookies behaviour is that of. I wanted to see what were the more popular branches of study in modern life (,...: this reasoning is mostly utilized in the premises and the nature of reality, and “ philosophy... Simply study of what is right, moral, ethical, and change could consider all of structure. Of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it reasoning is mostly utilized in the modern day methods... The only system out there consider ontology ( the study of truth modern day,... In your breast in its most broad definition simply study of self and psychology... 10 commandments of philosophy other “ related ” aspects as axiology c. 495 ). Few philosophers and bad, right and wrong, and Social want to philosophy! Few philosophers 19th century A.D its epistemology and philosophy of other arts and –! Problems to be studied or resolved really have to do with beauty, balance, Estetics... Brand or other trademarked entity is for the research of existence 1700 s! Has to do with the relations of things can easily cross over into theoretical.. Philosophy is the study of truth like the freedom the pursue happiness, after... Consider how rhetoric relates to law open books for an epistemological and ontological.... Said, “ all I know is that branch of philosophy most student or! Hegel argued that it ( conclusion ) is missing in the last century under.. 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