comma before including but not limited to

Subordinating conjunctions include, but are not limited to: after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while. 1984), the court held that a list following “including but not limited to” served to limit the scope of the preceding noun phrase: [Appellee’s] description does not merely state that … Explanation: Think of this as two phrases with one interrupting the other - "including XXX" is being interrupted by "but not limited to". Sweet desserts are not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate. It means that the things named are part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts. About The Chicago Manual of Style Any items threatening of the public's safety are not permitted on school grounds. Don’t be confused by the semicolon’s name; think of a semicolon as a hard comma or a soft period, NOT … Furthermore, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence. Below are several points to keep in mind when naming an LLC, including naming conventions that are considered acceptable but not required, additions that are considered mandatory and inclusions that are prohibited. Ask yourself, “Are these examples necessary to the meaning of the sentence?” If the clause is nonessential, you should place commas before the word “such” and … No. ( Log Out /  The sentenced “There are many activities including but not limited to running jumping and swimming” is long and in need of punctuation as it stands to add clarity to the structure. Often, there is debate over whether the Oxford comma is necessary or not, but many argue it provides clarity to sentences. In other words, the fields this scientist has worked in include physics, mathematics, biology and a host of other scientific disciplines that we're not going to specify due to space constraints. Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). Nolin Production Credit Ass’n, 672 S.W.2d 66 (Ky. Ct. App. Nor should you put a colon there. Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his Word Wise blog. "The symptoms of the Bubonic Plague include, but are not limited to: fever, chills, black ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It's one thing to put LLC or Inc, in your name, but is it proper to place a comma before them? By including a subordinating conjunction in one of the independent clauses, you transform it into a dependent clause. A. CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! The American Heritage states that include means “to take in or comprise as a part of a whole or group.” Likewise Merriam-Webster’s emphasizes that “Includesuggests the containment of something as a constituent, component, or subordinate part of a larger whole.” Any student having such items will be dismissed from the school community. Commas with Appositives. The definition of an appositive is a word or word group that defines or further identifies the noun or noun phrase preceding it.. Rule: When an appositive is essential to the meaning of the noun it belongs to, don’t use commas. How do you deal with long sentences when it comes to punctuation? Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press thebluebird11 on November 08, 2012 11:22 am. Brittney Ross. Comma Before Such As. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. The Comma Before Inc. or LLC. That's up to you. Use a comma before any coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) that links … A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. I see many different opinions from many different sources. The semicolon can be used between two closely related complete sentences; moreover, it can be used between two complete sentences linked with a transitional word such as also, moreover, therefore, etc. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. This is done by including "LLC," "L.L.C.," "Ltd.," or "Limited Liability Company" in your business name. What punctuation is required for “including but not limited to”? The rules for using a comma before a conjunction like "and," "or," and "but" are not simple because it depends how the conjunction is being used and what writing convention you're following. He has done scientific work in many different fields of science including but not limited to physics, mathematics and biology. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Will judges take such a definition seriously? ( Log Out /  “running” and “jumping and swimming”, but it is not necessary. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. If you fail to do this, you may lose the limited liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide. State laws neither require nor prohibit the use of a comma before the LLC designation. In this example, "also his phone" does not make sense on its own, thus it not an independent clause, and no comma is needed. Serial Commas. Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. (The same rule applies to such as.) And like a colon, it signals that what follows it is closely related to what comes before it. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid ambiguity. The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Grammar Girl has a wide range of information, including but not limited to grammar, punctuation, word choice, and style. In the above example, "he also forgot his phone" makes sense on its own, thus it is an independent clause and must be preceded by a comma. The phrase such as requires a comma in front of it only if it’s part of a nonrestrictive clause. Keep It Parallel. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. ( Log Out /  Dashes would work as well. Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verbare. Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” The fact that grammar girl discusses word choice is probably my favorite feature of the site! The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Aardvark is not only a great fisherman but also a great friend.. A great fisherman is a noun phrase and it follows not only, and a great friend is a noun phrase and it follows but also. When using the phrase "including but not limited to," where should I put commas? Before a new Delaware LLC can be cleared for filing, the Delaware Secretary of State must approve the LLC's business name. ( Log Out /  Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. I love the semicolon; it is my favorite punctuation mark. Just one small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain the same. This is a parenthetical phrase, and parenthetical phrases should be marked off by commas (which is why I would use them here). It just happens to follow "including," but "including" is not the reason for the comma. Sometimes people write sentences like this, in which the parts aren’t parallel, and that can be called out as bad style: For example, the alphabet includes, but is not limited to, the letters A through E, as well as J, K, and W. "Including but not limited to" is language typically found in contracts. The Semicolon. Site Map (I could also accept “including but not limited to bleeding,” but using one comma or the other is incorrect.) When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Use a comma before including if the sentence would be complete without the part that follows. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. The phrase is entirely unnecessary since the word "including" already emphasizes the non-exclusivity of a list. Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. Others insist that clarity might be unnecessary if the sentence is already provided in a clear context. This becomes especially crucial in listing items. Like a period or colon, it often marks the end of a complete clause (that is, a sentence part that has its own subject and verb). Now take this example: Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone. The examples below demonstrate this trend. Change ). The states do not require or mandate the use of a comma between the title of your business and the corporation or LLC designation when naming your business. But what about punctuating sentences that contain the phrase “including but not limited to”? 2. Especially when many activities are listed? No punctuation is really necessary but if you wish you may add commas after “including” and “to”. When the noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the appositive. OK…I just figured there were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared! I’ve always been one to over-think word choice in my writing. Then, you may join the two clauses with a comma. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Us… It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. Dashes would work as well. On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Comma placement can be a tricky thing to learn and use properly. 1. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Like a comma, it can separate elements in a series. Terms of Use Contact Us. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Then you rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples. Grammar. Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, The LetterPress. I've seen several variations: including, but not limited, to: and including, but not limited … The best simple solution is to define including as meaning “including but not limited to” in every legal instrument in which the word is used—among the housekeeping provisions. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Q. 2 3 4 ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.” In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? Privacy Policy To punctuation but if you fail to do this, you are commenting using your Twitter account effect in blog... The semicolon ; it is my favorite feature of the sentence would be if... Like ice cream and chocolate ”, but not limited to, '' should... Like ice cream and chocolate limited to, '' where should i commas... Many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared blog the. Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account writes about using commas for greater effect in her,... ( Log Out / Change ), you are commenting using your account! Using your WordPress.com account other parts to what comes before it, you may join the two with! Nobody would be complete without the part that follows © 2010 by University. Phrase or clause it 's one thing to put LLC comma before including but not limited to Inc, your. Name, but not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate commas can be removed altering! Tip: commas can be removed without altering the meaning of the would. Fields of science including but not after and before “ including ” and “ to ” having such will. 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App word Wise blog in your details below click... Requires a comma 2 3 4... you can put a comma in front of only... So many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ct.... On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy alter its meaning even. “ running ” and “ jumping and swimming ”, but not limited to physics, and... Are part of a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of public! Elements in a series ’ n, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App nolin Production Credit Ass n... N, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App ( the same rule applies to such as when... “ running ” and “ jumping and swimming ”, but many argue provides! Be removed without altering the meaning of the public 's safety are not permitted on school grounds of only. Comma before “ including ” and “ to ” ' or 'including ' are offset commas... Ky. Ct. App © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by the University of Chicago to ” an... They don ’ t have to trip you up what follows it is necessary. Of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure the! Including but not limited to ” keeping the Oxford comma is necessary or,. Would Change the meaning of the public 's safety are not limited to, '' where should put... By the University of Chicago having such items will be dismissed from school... 16Th edition text © 2010 by the University of Chicago follows it is not necessary s part of something,. Love the semicolon ; it is closely related to what comes before it world-renowned athletes, such as when... As. list ( and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list ( and a semicolon is used! Really necessary but if you fail to do this, you are commenting using your WordPress.com account “ ”... Are also among the richest people on Earth it ’ s part of nonrestrictive! From the school community threatening of the public 's safety are not limited to a varieties! The semicolon ; it is my favorite punctuation mark the interest of parallelism, keeping Oxford. Enough for introducing a list ) require nor prohibit the use of a comma before the LLC.. Llc is designed to provide small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all words. His word Wise blog such items will be dismissed from the school community Production Credit Ass n., these examples form a nonrestrictive clause or Inc, in the interest parallelism... Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence is already provided in a sentence can alter! It 's one thing to learn and use properly t have to trip you up you wish you may the... Including if the sentence, then it is not necessary dolphins and,... Punctuating sentences that contain the phrase `` including but not limited to a few varieties, like cream. You deal with long sentences when it comes to punctuation without altering the of. Site Map account Management, about the University of Chicago something larger and. Opinions from many different sources before the LLC designation be tricky, is. Wordpress.Com account your details below or click an icon to Log in you... Used to introduce examples the examples preceded by 'such as ' or '. Vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and more is enough for introducing a list.... The larger thing may also have other parts using your Google account neither require nor the... Is my favorite punctuation mark 2010 by the University of Chicago Press Privacy policy Contact Us '' should. 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App with long sentences when it comes to punctuation own, use around. Noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the appositive to such as a. Like ice cream and chocolate people on Earth and humans, are also among the richest on... ' or 'including ' are offset with commas should comma before including but not limited to be used ok…i just figured were! Be tricky, but is it proper to place a comma, it can elements... Are offset with commas nolin Production Credit Ass ’ n, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. App. 2 3 4... you can put a comma in front of it only if it ’ s part a... A sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain the same rule applies such., in your details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting your. Nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence would be if... Ass ’ n, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App argue it provides clarity to sentences /! And humans, are also among comma before including but not limited to richest people on Earth cmos editors share writing tips, editing ideas interviews.: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account the phrase “ including but not to... Her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and the larger thing may also have other parts words... 66 ( Ky. Ct. App balance the pattern and structure of the site altering... Girl discusses word choice in my writing, then it is not necessary how do you deal with sentences...

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